Physical effects consequence modelling
The rise and rise of liquefied natural gas
Natural gas comprises methane, ethane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, plus small quantities of nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, sulphur compounds and water. Liquefied Natural Gas, or LNG, is produced by cooling natural gas to -160°C, once impurities such as water and carbon dioxide have been removed, which would otherwise solidify.
SHEPHERD’s delight – a new resource for explosion exceedance
There are about 2 major explosions around the world every year in the refinery and petrochemical industry. The effects can be devastating, causing fatalities and significant economic losses. Often the fatalities and many of the serious injuries occur inside buildings on the site.
Making the most of fire and gas detector mapping
Fixed fire and gas detection systems in processing facilities typically ensure that risk mitigation systems such as isolation, blowdown and active fire protection are activated in the event of a hazardous event.
Integrated use of CFD in QRA
CFD for design
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies are often performed to assess the dispersion of flammable or toxic releases, or overpressures resulting from explosions. Traditionally, the output of such studies is a report containing 2D and 3D graphical presentations of results, sometimes accompanied by short videos showing how the dispersion or overpressures develop over time. The results may also be combined with event frequencies to derive 'exceedence plots' which indicate the likelihood of overpressures exceeding certain magnitudes.
Hydrogen future: safety assessment of hydrogen facilities
Hydrogen is increasingly being used as a transport fuel in Fuel Cell Electrical Vehicles (FCEVs) thanks to its environmentally friendly nature and increasing availability from water electrolysis or steam reforming.
Assessing offshore explosions
During major maintenance periods, offshore platforms are usually shut down to remove the major explosion risk to the workers. In association with MMI Engineering Limited, Risktec has developed a practical and cost effective approach to assessing and mitigating explosions, enabling continued production.
A rough guide to hydrogen sulphide
Around one-third of the world's gas fields contain 'sour gas', contaminated by sulphur compounds including hydrogen sulphide, also known as H2S. This gas is one of the most deadly hazards in the industry, making the fields more difficult to develop.